WHAT IS NTSC AND PAL STANDARD?
Although VHS video format is the same throughout the World, the video standard or electronic signal that is recorded on the cassette varies from country to country. The two most common video standards used are NTSC and PAL.
NTSC is the video system or standard used in North America and most of South America. In NTSC, 30 frames are transmitted each second. Each frame is made up of 525 individual scan lines.
PAL is the predominant video system or standard mostly used overseas. In PAL, 25 frames are transmitted each second. Each frame is made up of 625 individual scan lines.
There are other format as follows:
NTSC: National Television System Committee. Developed in the USA, also used by other countries. Utilizing the USA power net 60Hz as refreshing frequency
PAL: Phase Alternation Line. Developed in Germany, also used by other countries. Utilizing the European power net 50Hz as refreshing frequency.
SECAM: Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire. Developed in France also used by other countries. Utilizing the European power net 50Hz as refreshing frequency.
MESECAM: Mediterranean SECAM, a SECAM sub-standard developed for use in the Middle East and still used by a few countries. TV reception and playback may be viewed with both PAL and SECAM TV sets.
PAL-60: A substandard of PAL used by some countries, utilizing 60Hz instead of 50Hz refreshing frequency.
NTSC 4.43: An NTSC substandard. Most modern playback machines are dual mode and will switch automatically between versions 3.XX and 4.XX. Older machines may require manual switching or an additional external converter.
Here is a list of the countries and there popular formats:
Alberta Oil and Gas Mission to Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh and Vung Tau City
November 16-20, 2015
The Government of Alberta’s Ministry of International and Intergovernmental Relations in partnership with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD) is organizing an oil and gas trade and investment mission to Vietnam with a focus on energy efficiency.
The following cities will be included in the mission:
1) Ho Chi Minh city (November 16 -18, 2015)
2) Vung Tau city (November 19-20, 2015)
Don’t miss this opportunity to showcase your goods, services and solutions and gather first-hand market intelligence and create new business opportunities in Vietnam’s oil and gas sector.
Participating companies will meet with national and international oil companies, producers, oilfield service companies, engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contractors, operators and relevant organizations in these markets who are trying to strengthen or add services/equipment to their current portfolios.
Companies with expertise in energy efficiency, including:
· Enhanced oil recovery technologies and equipment
· Well services (coil tubing, stimulation, pressure services, etc.)
· Surface facilities
· Processing facilities and equipment
· Training (upstream, midstream and downstream)
· Oil and gas equipment transportation
· Information and Communication Technologies
1) Group procurement meetings, one-on-one meetings with potential JVs, agents, producers, etc.
2) Briefings to understand Vietnam market place
3) Technical seminars where Alberta companies will have the opportunity to showcase their technologies with local decision makers
4) Networking events
DOs and DONTs in networking events
Networking is the process of fishing for new customers or new order within a focused crowd. The effective networking will result into $$$! Yes: we network to make money, not to have fun. Yes: we network to make money, not to know more people. Yes: we network to make money, not to spend time.
The 4 DONTs of effective networking are
- Do not start with your name or business name
Starting with your name and your business will frame you in the audience mind to the basic service of what you do. It will immediately create a barrier between you and the audience.
When you say: “Hi, I am Joe and I am accountant”
It automatically generates a barrier between you and the audience. In the mindset of the audience, it will be one of these messages
“Oh, one more accountant in the crowd.”
“Oh, another one of them”
“Oh, I hate these guys, they do not do a good job”
All of these messages are toxic to your networking goals
- Do not wear the company shirt
Wearing a company shirt frames you within the company image. It would be reflect on the ability of connecting with the crowd. In my own experience, having a shirt of an elite service with extremely high reputation was not a good idea. The message in the head of the audience were
“Another guy from this company that charges premium?”
“I just got a call from this company last week, please not again.”
It automatically position you in a frame that impact the acceptance to your message.
- Do not have your logo
Having a logo frames you in what your company do and not how better or effective than your competitors. It is the type of barrier that you do not want. You shall focus of how better is your service or product than others. The message shall be “How do you outstand against others and why you are better. NOT what do you do.
- Do not talk about your business
Do say what your business is doing, or the nature of your service. Focus on the values that your provide to the different clients. Focus on why your customer will come to you and how do you stand against the crowd.
The 4 Do’s of effective networking are
- Do ask an engagement question
An engagement question is the best approach to qualify your crowd. You shall be able to adjust your message to your crowd. If you the first question does not qualify the crowd, Ask a second question but there is NO THIRD. If you can not qualify the crowd, think about another question for next time.
- Do say a pain-hitting paragraph
A pain-hitting paragraph is a simple statement that characterizes the pain that your business is addressing. Identifying the pain immediately creates a link to the audience and you will get their ears for few minutes. Three – four statements conquer in the audience mind that you know and feel their pain. The audience perceives you are like them, and people like to buy from people like them, who they like.
- Do say what is your solution to the pain
After the pain-hitting paragraph pause for a moment, so the audience can digest what said. Then, say HOW you solve the pain, WHY your service is better, and the reasons they should use your service and not others.
- Do say how to access your solution
At the end you shall say how the audience can connect to your service, such as access a website. You must leave a contact information with an action so the audience can connect to you. Or simply, say “your name, I will be more than happy to assist you.”
Why Mediate or Arbitrate?
The Price of anything is the amount of life you pay for it. – Henry David Thoreau
Why Mediate or Arbitrate?: Participants in mediation or arbitration voluntarily submit to these processes. People who arbitrate or mediate realize that conflict has its costs. Costs include:
o Attorney Fees
o Lost Productivity
o Time Lost
o Stress-related Illness
o Lack of Sleep
o Adversarial Assumptions
o Broken Relationships
o Distracted from Meaningful, Desired Relationships
o Risk of Escalation
o Loss of Family
o Surrendering to Bad Character
o Values Warped
o Loss of Joy, Love and Hope
o False Polarization
o Lost Opportunities
You have better things to do. Through mediation and arbitration, you can control and reduce the costs of conflict. Parties to mediation and arbitration can control the time it takes to resolve a dispute.
Consider the alternative. Litigation can be forced on a person. If you are sued you have to respond or you will suffer an adverse judgment. Attorneys must be hired. Litigation is an adversarial process in which each party attempts to out maneuver and gain the upper hand. Conflict, with is costs, escalates. The court imposes its deadlines. The parties have little control of the costs, timeline or outcome. In the end, the Court imposes an outcome which might not meet the needs or desires of either party. In litigation the parties lose control. In mediation the parties retain control over the outcome.
When litigation is threatened or even after it has started, you can always suggest the alternatives of mediation or arbitration or a court appointed referee.
What is Mediation? Mediation is facilitated negotiation. Mediation seeks a mutually beneficial solution. Parties discuss their values and motivations. Solutions evolve as parties understand each other, gain knowledge and explore resources. A trained mediator facilitates the meetings. The mediator remains neutral and does not make decisions for the parties. The dispute is settled only if parties are in agreement.
Is Mediation Effective? Studies of mediation of domestic disputes show 95% of participants did not believe mediation would work before they began. Yet 71% reached agreement on some, if not all, the issues they faced. Doubt is normal and does not predict the outcome of mediation. Divorced couples who had a judge decide the outcome of their divorce are 7-8 times more likely to bring future disputes to the court than those who mediated.
Is Mediation for Everyone? If a person is afraid to be in the same room as the other party or does not feel able to speak up or disagree with them, mediation might not be appropriate. Such concerns should be shared with the party’s attorney and mediator before mediation sessions.
What Happens During Mediation? Generally the mediator opens the session with an introduction. Rules for the discussion are established. Issues are identified. The parties may be invited to state what they want and why. Discussions follow. The mediator summarizes agreements reached.
Types of Mediation: The extent to which the mediator directs the outcome of mediation varies from mediator to mediator. On one end of the continuum are mediators who refuse to interject their opinions into the process. On the other extreme a mediator might evaluate the evidence and arguments of the parties and recommend a specific outcome. In some mediation sessions the parties stay in constant contact with each other. In other mediations, the mediator uses a process called caucuses. A caucus is a meeting with the mediator and just one side to the dispute. The mediator may shuffle between separate rooms where the parties are and communicate information, listen, ask questions and discuss the arguments and evidence presented by the other side. The type of mediation used depends upon the mediator, the issues to be decided, and the desires of the parties.
What is Arbitration? Arbitration has been described as “rent a judge.” A neutral person is hired who reviews evidence and renders a decision. Under Iowa law, an arbitrator’s decision can become a decision of a court and is enforced is a similar fashion. Subpoenas are available to compel witnesses and evidence to be brought to the arbitrator for decision.
What are the Advantages of Arbitration? Some of the benefits of Arbitration include:
a) The parties can agree to control the costs and time necessary to resolve a dispute;
b) Arbitrators are legally trained to make judicial decisions based upon law and evidence. The risks of a biased or an emotionally driven decision is less when compared to juries.
c) An Arbitrator can also be asked to investigate and collect the evidence. The costs and time necessary for a dispute is greatly reduced. See the article on Investigative Binding Arbitration.
d) Arbitrators with special technical expertise can be hired to reduce the risk of error.
e) A case can be handled piecemeal. For example, in an auto accident case the arbitrator can first determine if the defendants are responsible to pay any damages. Only if a defendant is responsible will there be need to incur the cost of presenting additional evidence about damages.
f) The parties can agree to a less formal process and allow evidence to be presented by summaries, reports, or other convenient means.
Referees can play an important role high conflict divorces. Since parties share parenting responsibilities even after the divorce, the potential for ongoing bitter disputes and new disputes is great. In high conflict divorces, the parties find it impossible to resolve minor disputes. The cost and delay of going to court results in escalation of conflict as the parties battle against each other for control and influence over the children. The children suffer in the midst of parental conflict. The court can give a referee authority to hear, investigate and decide such disputes. Decisions can be made in days rather than 7 to 12 months it normally takes in litigation.
In summary, to avoid investing an undue amount of your life in conflict, try mediation, arbitration and special masters.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the Arab world
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms in the Arab world have been growing hand in hand with the resurgence of various countries as members of the fast growing club of successful emerging markets. The flexibility of arbitration, mediation and other ADR methods, as well as their speed, efficiency and confidentiality, have made them more attractive to investors and parties in contracts of an international nature. Consequently, a significant number of Arab countries have been busy updating and enhancing their laws and regulations on arbitration and mediation in particular. There is momentum behind ADR in the region.
Furthermore, the global economic downturn has led to a significant increase in the number of disputes in various sectors, and this in turn has provided an impetus behind the need to enhance the procedures applied by the various arbitration centers in the Arab world.
This development is not solely linked to the realities of modern commerce. In fact, the conciliatory approach and the notion of deferring to a neutral and objective personality for a decision, that ultimately underline all forms of ADR, are well steeped in Arabic and Islamic traditions.
There are at least two verses in the Koran that sanction the notion of arbitration and mediation. Furthermore, one of the most famous stories of the Prophet Mohammad’s early life involved him being chosen by feuding tribes, who could not agree on a vital element of the reconstruction of the Ka’aba, to resolve the dispute. The Prophet bridged the gaps between the quarreling parties by suggesting an original solution that was essentially a win-win for all. Other examples of arbitration and mediation abound in Islamic history.
At the outset, let us distinguish between mediation and arbitration. There are a number of differences between those two mechanisms.
Firstly, these methods differ in terms of the role of the appointed third party; in arbitration, an arbitrator is like a judge and his or her decision is final, whereas in mediation, the mediator works to try and bridge the differences between the parties and move them closer a settlement or conciliation. In a sense, mediation is the preferred option when the parties are still attempting to resolve their differences in a way that would allow them to continue their working relationship; whereas, arbitration is usually sought in order to reach a final determination on the overall dispute at the end of the relationship.
Secondly, the authority of an arbitrator is much wider than that of the mediator.
Thirdly, there are differences in terms of time limits, and venue considerations, between the two methods. In essence, arbitration is an attempt to replicate the judicial process but in a manner that is more specialized and streamlined. Mediation is a process whereby the parties agree to nominate a third party who would be tasked with trying to find common ground between the parties and resolve their differences, usually through the organization of meetings which are of a rather informal nature, at least in comparison with arbitration proceedings.
Finally, one of the main advantages of mediation is that it is far less costly than arbitration. In fact, it can be said that the costs of arbitration are its Achilles heel.
One of the most significant trends is the adoption of laws that deal specifically with mediation. In Jordan, the Law on Mediation for the Resolution of Civil Disputes was adopted in 2006. The law organizes the process of judicial mediation that takes place at the Court of First Instance. In accordance with Article 3 of the said law, the presiding judge may, upon the agreement of the parties or further to their request, refer the dispute to a mediating judge or a private mediator for the purposes of amicable resolution of the dispute. The mediator is then obliged by law to complete the mediation process within three months of the date on which the dispute was referred to him or her.
A similar development has taken place in the Emirate of Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates. By virtue of Dubai’s Law No. 16 of 2009, a Mediation Centre was established. The Mediation Centre will be annexed to Dubai’s Courts. The Centre is entrusted to review types of disputes that are defined by its Chairman. Disputes will be reviewed and amicably resolved through a number of experts, under the supervision, of the concerned judge, within a period that would not exceed one month from the date of the attendance of the parties before the judge.
The creation of such centers in Jordan and the UAE, as well as the existence of various mediation mechanisms through international organizations such the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Arbitration Centre, is likely to lead to a surge in the use of mediation as a method for the amicable resolution of disputes. This would be a welcome development, as it would entail the effective resolution of so many disputes in a conciliatory and timely manner, well before the matter escalates to reach a court room or an arbitration panel.
As for arbitration, we have also seen a number of positive trends in this regard in the Arab world. On the one hand, the trend towards the effective adoption of the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Arbitration Convention) has solidified. The New York Arbitration Convention mainly enshrines the principle that a properly made arbitration award in one member country must be binding and enforceable in another member country, unless the award can be rejected on the basis of certain grounds for refusal of enforcement, which are narrowly defined in the Convention. The Convention also confirms the principle that if a court is presented with a dispute which the parties had agreed to refer to arbitration, then the court must refer the matter to arbitration upon the request of one of the parties.
Historically, the rate of adoption of the New York Arbitration Convention in the Arab world has been good. Jordan was amongst the first countries to adopt the Convention, which came into effect in 1959. Almost all Arab countries have since joined, with Kuwait joining in 1978, Saudi Arabia in 1994 and, more recently, the United Arab Emirates in 2006.
The challenge is to ensure that the exceptions that would allow a member country to refuse the enforcement of an arbitral award are applied in a strict and narrow manner. Under Article V(2)(b) of the Convention, the enforcement of an arbitral award may be refused if “the recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to the public policy of that country.” The parameters of what a country regards as “public policy” can be wide. In Saudi Arabia, an arbitration agreement or award is respected provided that it is not contrary to the principles of Shari’a law. Such a limitation falls within the “public policy” exception, but the key lies in the way such an exception is applied.
In the UAE, Articles 235 and 236 of the Civil Procedures Law (Federal Law No. 11 of 1992) confirm the principle that foreign arbitral awards will be enforced in the country, provided a number of conditions are met. These include procedural issues such as the proper notification and representation of the parties before the arbitral tribunal that issues the decision in the foreign country. Also, UAE courts may refuse the enforcement of a foreign arbitral award if it contradicts a previous judgment already issued by a UAE court or if it includes elements that “contradict public policy or morals.”
While in the past “public policy” exceptions have been defined in a wide manner that allowed courts to reject a number of foreign arbitration awards in various Arab countries, there is a discernible trend towards limiting the use of this exception, and applying it only in clear cases of contravention of the country’s moral or public policies.
Furthermore, in the recent past, various Arab countries have upgraded their arbitration laws to be in line with international best practices. This is evidenced by the increasing use of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration. This model law was drafted by the UNCITRAL with a view to assisting countries that seek to improve their laws in such a way as to ensure the best possible procedures for commercial arbitration.
For example, Egypt adopted Law No. 27 in 1994, the Commercial Arbitration Law, which is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law. This aimed to enhance arbitrations procedures and resolve complications that arose under the provisions that dealt with arbitrations in the Egyptian Code of Civil and Commercial Procedures and provide a law dedicated to arbitration. Also, in 1994, Bahrain adopted a new international arbitration law (Decree no. 9/1994) that was based on the UNCITRAL Model Law. In 2008, Syria issued an arbitration law that is based on the Model Law as well.
The UAE is also presently considering a new Federal arbitration law and it is widely reported that the new law would be based on the UNCITRAL Model Law. Once enacted, the new Federal arbitration Law will replace the existing provisions in the Civil Procedures Law.
Finally, there is no greater proof of the growing popularity and importance of arbitration than the increasing use of existing arbitration centers in the region, and the founding of new centers. The Dubai International Arbitration Center (DIAC), whose rules are UNCITRAL based, has proven to be an excellent success. The number of cases that the DIAC is handling has been growing at a very impressive rate. According to one report, while the number of new cases with the DIAC in 2008 was 100, there had been 180 new cases registered with DIAC by August 2009. The Cairo Regional Center for International Commercial Arbitration, which was established in 1979, continues to be a great success.
Earlier in January, Bahrain announced the launch of Bahrain Chamber of Dispute Resolution, in partnership with the American Arbitration Association. It is reported that the Chamber will operate what is being called an “arbitration free zone.”
In conclusion, various Arab countries have engaged in an active process of upgrading their arbitration laws and those dealing with other alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. Arab arbitration centers are growing in significance, as more parties resort to the use of their services. These important developments can only serve to facilitate the infrastructure supporting international commercial contracts in the Arab world and, in turn, this will have very positive effects on investment and business growth in our region