Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR): A State-of-the-Art Review


Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is the extraction of vehicle license plate information from an image or a sequence of images. The extracted information can be used with or without a database in many applications, such as electronic payment systems (toll payment, parking fee payment), and freeway and arterial monitoring systems for traffic surveillance. The ALPR uses either a color, black and white, or infrared camera to take images. The quality of the acquired images is a major factor in the success of the ALPR. ALPR as a real-life application has to quickly and successfully process license plates under different environmental conditions, such as indoors, outdoors, day or night time. It should also be generalized to process license plates from different nations, provinces, or states. These plates usually contain different colors, are written in different languages, and use different fonts; some plates may have a single color background and others have background images. The license plates can be partially occluded by dirt, lighting, and towing accessories on the car. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art techniques for ALPR. We categorize different ALPR techniques according to the features they used for each stage, and compare them in terms of pros, cons, recognition accuracy, and processing speed. Future forecasts of ALPR are given at the end.

Published in:

Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:23 , Issue: 2 )


Alberta Oil and Gas Mission to Vietnam

Alberta Government Canada

Ho Chi Minh and Vung Tau City
November 16-20, 2015


The Government of Alberta’s Ministry of International and Intergovernmental Relations in partnership with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD) is organizing an oil and gas trade and investment mission to Vietnam with a focus on energy efficiency.

The following cities will be included in the mission:

1) Ho Chi Minh city (November 16 -18, 2015)
2) Vung Tau city (November 19-20, 2015)
Don’t miss this opportunity to showcase your goods, services and solutions and gather first-hand market intelligence and create new business opportunities in Vietnam’s oil and gas sector.

Mission overview:

Participating companies will meet with national and international oil companies, producers, oilfield service companies, engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contractors, operators and relevant organizations in these markets who are trying to strengthen or add services/equipment to their current portfolios.
Companies with expertise in energy efficiency, including:

· Enhanced oil recovery technologies and equipment
· Well services (coil tubing, stimulation, pressure services, etc.)
· Surface facilities
· Processing facilities and equipment
· Training (upstream, midstream and downstream)
· Oil and gas equipment transportation
· Information and Communication Technologies


Planned activities:

1) Group procurement meetings, one-on-one meetings with potential JVs, agents, producers, etc.
2) Briefings to understand Vietnam market place
3) Technical seminars where Alberta companies will have the opportunity to showcase their technologies with local decision makers
4) Networking events


On-Chip Electrical Field Sensing For Lab-On-A-Chip Applications


Authors: Yehya H. Ghallab, and Wael Badawy

Abstract: This paper presents a novel CMOS electric field sensor, termed as a Differential Electric Field Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (DeFET). It’s based on a standard 0.18μm CMOS technology. The DeFET shows a sensitivity of 76 μA/V/μm. Also, the DefET’s theory of operation is presented and discussed. Both the experimental and simulation results confirm the DeFET’s theory of operation is presented.

Link to the paper

Link to download the ECS Trans.-2006-Badawy-1-15

Link to the list of other Peer Journal Publications

Reference: Yehya H. Ghallab, and Wael Badawy, “On-chip Electrical Field Sensing for Lab-on-a-chip applications“, ElectroChemical Transaction, 1, (28) 1 (2006), pp. 1-15.


Patent List has been updated


The patent list has been updated , please check


The summary is as follows:

9 US patents

8 Canadian Patents

1 WO

1 EU

Technologies under confidential patent disclosures, are not listed

Translation button

My site in multi-language using auto translation.


Today, I enabled the auto-translation. Please, check my site www.badawy.ca and let me know what do you think and if you can help me fixing the translation.

Looking forward to hear from you.

Wael Badawy


The Supreme Court of Canada

Like most western democracies, Canada has an all-powerful supreme court sitting at the top of its judicial hierarchy with the power to overrule all lower-ranking courts, and even Parliament itself. Consisting of nine elderly and experienced judges, the Supreme Court only hears appeal cases which it deems to present an important constitutional question that deserves clarification. Most commonly, these are cases in which an accused Canadian believes an existing law, of which he has been found guilty, should not be a law at all, because it contradicts some fundamental human right protected by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

The ability to overturn laws of Parliament is a very dramatic power, and the Supreme Court is one of the most powerful political institutions in Canada for this reason. Rulings of the Supreme Court are closely watched and covered by the Canadian media and can often generate enormous controversy. For example:

  • In the case of The Queen v. Morgentaler (1988), the Court ruled the government cannot prevent Canadian women from having access to an abortion.
  • In the case of The Queen v. Keegstra (1990), the Court ruled that Canadians can be legally punished for making “hate speech.”
  • In the case of Rodriguez v. British Columbia (1993), the Court ruled it’s illegal to help a sick person commit suicide.

In recent years, it has also become commonplace for the federal government to ask the Supreme Court of Canada to occasionally rule on things without the pretext of a trial. Such requests are known as Supreme Court “references.” They’re non-binding, but still help clarify the law. For instance:

  • In Reference re: secession of Quebec (1998), the Court ruled that the province of Quebec could not legally separate from Canada without the approval of the Canadian government.
  • In Reference re: same-sex marriage (2004), the Court ruled that marriage between two men or two women was constitutional.
  • In Reference re: Senate reform (2014), the Court set out the constitutional rules for reforming the Senate of Canada.

The nine judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the prime minister, and serve until age 75, so at any given time the Supreme Court is a medley of many different appointments of many different administrations. Traditionally, prime ministers put a great deal of effort into ensuring the court always maintains a fair geographic balance, with at least one justice for each major region of Canada.



The Canadian Charter Era

From around 1931 (when Canada became independent from British law) to 1982, Canadian law operated according to a principle known as parliamentary supremacy. According to this theory, with Britain out of the way, there was basically no authority higher than the Canadian Parliament when it came to deciding what was legal and what was not. Any decree passed by Parliament was the law, end of story. If you didn’t like it, too bad.

Parliamentary supremacy ended in 1982, when the Canadian Constitution was reformed and a new thing called the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was added. The Charter declared that some human rights were so important that no law could be passed that violated them. So if, say, the Canadian government passed a law that said all Japanese people had to be rounded up and sent to camps because we were at war with Japan, that law would be unconstitutional, because the Charter forbids parliament from passing a law that discriminates against race or nationality.

1982 thus heralded in a bold new age of Canadian law, sometimes called the “Charter Era.” It’s a new era in which the rights of all Canadians are much more clear and easily protected than in previous decades, but also one in which judges and lawyers have gained a great deal of power, as we shall see.

Canadian Legal System

The Canadian Common Law

Though Canada is now fully independent from Britain, British Common Law still applies, as it does in the United States and other former British colonies. Common Law is basically the idea that precedent matters, and that decisions and definitions set down by courts in earlier times still apply to everyone today.

Though Canadian judges now have more than enough independent Canadian legal precedent to help them make decisions, it’s not entirely uncommon for judges, when faced with a particularly thorny legal question, to refer back to the judgments of British judges in the colonial period, or even earlier, in order to provide historical context for the purpose of laws or understanding, say, what “libel” is supposed to mean. The famed Magna Carta of 1215, for instance, which first outlined basic principles of English justice, is still considered one of the foundational documents of Canadian Common Law.



DOs and DONTs in networking events



Networking is the process of fishing for new customers or new order within a focused crowd. The effective networking will result into $$$! Yes: we network to make money, not to have fun. Yes: we network to make money, not to know more people. Yes: we network to make money, not to spend time.


The 4 DONTs of effective networking are

  1. Do not start with your name or business name

Starting with your name and your business will frame you in the audience mind to the basic service of what you do. It will immediately create a barrier between you and the audience.

When you say: “Hi, I am Joe and I am accountant”

It automatically generates a barrier between you and the audience. In the mindset of the audience, it will be one of these messages

“Oh, one more accountant in the crowd.”

“Oh, another one of them”

“Oh, I hate these guys, they do not do a good job”

All of these messages are toxic to your networking goals


  1. Do not wear the company shirt

Wearing a company shirt frames you within the company image. It would be reflect on the ability of connecting with the crowd. In my own experience, having a shirt of an elite service with extremely high reputation was not a good idea. The message in the head of the audience were

“Another guy from this company that charges premium?”

“I just got a call from this company last week, please not again.”

It automatically position you in a frame that impact the acceptance to your message.


  1. Do not have your logo

Having a logo frames you in what your company do and not how better or effective than your competitors. It is the type of barrier that you do not want. You shall focus of how better is your service or product than others. The message shall be “How do you outstand against others and why you are better. NOT what do you do.


  1. Do not talk about your business

Do say what your business is doing, or the nature of your service. Focus on the values that your provide to the different clients. Focus on why your customer will come to you and how do you stand against the crowd.


The 4 Do’s of effective networking are

  1. Do ask an engagement question

An engagement question is the best approach to qualify your crowd. You shall be able to adjust your message to your crowd. If you the first question does not qualify the crowd, Ask a second question but there is NO THIRD. If you can not qualify the crowd, think about another question for next time.

  1. Do say a pain-hitting paragraph

A pain-hitting paragraph is a simple statement that characterizes the pain that your business is addressing. Identifying the pain immediately creates a link to the audience and you will get their ears for few minutes. Three – four statements conquer in the audience mind that you know and feel their pain. The audience perceives you are like them, and people like to buy from people like them, who they like.


  1. Do say what is your solution to the pain

After the pain-hitting paragraph pause for a moment, so the audience can digest what said. Then, say HOW you solve the pain, WHY your service is better, and the reasons they should use your service and not others.


  1. Do say how to access your solution

At the end you shall say how the audience can connect to your service, such as access a website. You must leave a contact information with an action so the audience can connect to you. Or simply, say “your name, I will be more than happy to assist you.”



20 Questions to ask Before Starting a business

So you’ve got what it takes to be an entrepreneur? Now, ask yourself these 20 questions to make sure you’re thinking about the right key business decisions:

  1. Why am I starting a business?
  2. What kind of business do I want?
  3. Who is my ideal customer?
  4. What products or services will my business provide?
  5. Am I prepared to spend the time and money needed to get my business started?
  6. What differentiates my business idea and the products or services I will provide from others in the market?
  7. Where will my business be located?
  8. How many employees will I need?
  9. What types of suppliers do I need?
  10. How much money do I need to get started?
  11. Will I need to get a loan?
  12. How soon will it take before my products or services are available?
  13. How long do I have until I start making a profit?
  14. Who is my competition?
  15. How will I price my product compared to my competition?
  16. How will I set up the legal structure of my business?
  17. What taxes do I need to pay?
  18. What kind of insurance do I need?
  19. How will I manage my business?
  20. How will I advertise my business?